Deamination (Total 4195 Papers Found)

33. Baer HP, Drummond GI, Duncan EL: Formation and deamination of adenosine by cardiac muscle enzymes. Mol Pharmacol 2: 67, 1966 34. Pasque MK, Spray TL. Pellom GL, Van Trigt P, Peyton RB, Currie WD, Wechsler AS: Ribose-enhanced myocardial recovery following ischemia in the isolated working rat heart. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 83: 390, 1982 35. Duval-Arnold M, Ingwall JS, Menasche P, Fossel ET: Beneficial effects of inosine on cardiac metabolism during and after ischemic cardioplegic arrest -a P3 ...
The effects of thyroxine (T4) treatment of rats on the neuronal and extraneuronal uptake and subsequent metabolism of catecholamines in the heart were examined, to determine whether changes in the local dissipation of catecholamines might contribute to the enhanced sympathetic cardiac responses that occur when thyroid hormone levels are elevated. T4-treated rats were injected subcutaneously with L-thyroxine sodium 1 mg kg(-1) on days 1, 3 and 5, and controls were injected with the normal saline ...
The Escherichia coli purine repressor, PurR, binds to a 16-bp operator sequence and coregulates the genes for de novo synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, formation of a one-carbon unit for biosynthesis, and deamination of cytosine. We have characterized the purified repressor. Chemical cross-linking indicates that PurR is dimeric. Each subunit has an N-terminal domain of 52 amino acids for DNA binding and a C-terminal 289-residue domain for corepressor binding. Each domain was isolat ...
Glucosinolates are activated plant defenses common in the order Brassicales that release isothiocyanates (ITCs) and other hydrolysis products upon tissue damage. The reactive ITCs are toxic to insects resulting in reduced growth, delayed development and occasionally mortality. Generalist lepidopteran larvae often detoxify ingested ITCs via conjugation to glutathione (GSH) and survive on low glucosinolate diets, but it is not known how this process influences other aspects of metabolism. We inves ...
Aspartase is a textbook example of a highly specific enzyme with no identifiable alternative substrates. The enzyme is specific to aspartate and fumarate, but NH2OH can be substituted for ammonia as a substrate. A variety of divalent metal ions a such as Mg, Mn, Zn and Co activate the reaction. Initial velocity data for the aspartase from Hafnia alvei are consistent with rapid equilibrium ordered addition of Mg prior to aspartate but with completely random release of Mg, NH4 and fumarate. Using ...
The previous observation (BABIOR, B. M., J. Biol. Chem., 244, 449 (1969)) that the tritium isotope effect for the coenzyme B,,-dependent deamination of ethanolamine was smaller than the deuterium isotope effect prompted a reexamination of the various isotope effects observed in this reaction. Measurements of the rates of deamination of [l-D]and [l,l-Dn]ethanolamine showed that no secondary isotope effect was detectable within the limits of experimental error. Activation parameters for the deamin ...
  • P. H.-F. Yu,
  • Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire
  • 1988
When the stereospecifically deuterated dopamine enantiomers, (R)- and (S)-[alpha-2H1]dopamine, are incubated with amine oxidases, the deuterium atom may be either retained to form monodeuterated 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, or eliminated to produce the nondeuterated or protio-aldehyde product. These two aldehydes can be separated from one another and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Three types of stereospecific abstraction of a hydrogen fr ...
Salmonella ohio, which belong to Group C1 (0:6,7) of the Kauffmann-White classification system, produces a smooth lipopolysaccharide which by glycose analysis, methylation, deamination, and 1H-n.m.r. studies was shown to have an O-polysaccharide chain composed of a repeating hexasaccharide unit having the structure [----2)-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1----3)]-alpha-D-Manp-(1----2)-alpha-D-M anp- (1----2)-beta-D-Manp-(1----3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----2)-beta-D-Ma np-(1----]n. ...
HIV cDNAs from infected cells that were cultured in the presence or absence of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. Having shown that APOBEC3F does induce G to A mutations that correlate with loss of infectivity, they looked at the local consensus sites for cytosine deamination. The preferred target for APOBEC3F was minus-strand TC, which correlates with the HIV GA mutations seen in patients. Reuben Harris and colleagues independently showed that 70% of the APOBEC3F-preferred dinucleotides were TC, whereas 87 ...
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is formed by the oxidative deamination of dopamine (DA) catalyzed by monoamine oxidases (MAO); then, the aldehyde is oxidized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) or reduced to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) by aldose/aldehyde reductases. The present work aimed at evaluating the in vitro toxicity of DOPAL on catecholaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells which accumulate DA. DOPAL synthesis was stimulated by incuba ...
Since physiological concentrations (0.1-1 microM) of adenosine influence the functions of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), we investigated the metabolism of adenosine in suspensions of stimulated and unstimulated PMNs. Stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 1 microM), but not by zymosan (0.5 mg/ml) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP, 1 microM), provoked an accumulation of endogenous adenosine at a rate of 2.3 +/- 1.0 amol/cell per minute. A similar accumulation ...
RNA editing by deamination of specific adenosine bases to inosines during pre-mRNA processing generates edited isoforms of proteins. Recoding RNA editing is more widespread in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Editing levels rise strongly at metamorphosis, and Adar(5G1) null mutant flies lack editing events in hundreds of CNS transcripts; mutant flies have reduced viability, severely defective locomotion and age-dependent neurodegeneration. On the other hand, overexpressing an adult dADAR isoform ...
Anionic dyes, notably acid fuchsine, strongly stain the nuclei and cytoplasm of neurons severely damaged by injury or disease. We provide detailed instructions for staining nervous tissue with toluidine blue and acid fuchsine for optimal demonstration of injured neurons. Degeneration was induced in the hippocampus of the mouse by systemic administration of kainic acid, and the resulting acidophilia was investigated using paraffin sections of the Carnoy- or Bouin-fixed brains. The affected cells ...
THE enzymatic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid in sea urchin eggs and embryos has been demonstrated by Scarano1 and Scarano and Maggio2. Moreover, later results obtained by Scarano and Tallarico3 on the presence of deoxycytidylic acid-deaminase in livers of rat, chicken, rabbit in various stages of their embryonic development may indicate that this enzymatic activity, in developing or regenerating tissues, is proportional to their growth-rate. This latter view was confirm ...
Pyrazofurin, an inhibitor of orotidylate decarboxylase, imposes an absolute nutritional requirement for exogenous uridine to maintain normal growth of L5178Y, P388, L1210, W256 and S180 cells in vitro. The amount of uridine necessary for cell division when de novo uridine nucleotide synthesis is inhibited by pyrazofurin is: L5178Y, 30.5; P388, 39.7; L1210, 53.3: W256, 70.6; and S180, 886 fmol/cell. Cytidine, which can be deaminated to uridine, will substitute for uridine to maintain normal cell ...
The formation of new transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs) has a major impact on the evolution of gene regulatory networks. Clearly, single nucleotide mutations arising within genomic DNA can lead to the creation of TFBSs. Are molecular processes inducing single nucleotide mutations contributing equally to the creation of TFBSs? In the human genome, a spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosine in the context of CpG dinucleotides results in the creation of thymine (C → T), and this mut ...
As B cells engage in the immune response, they express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to initiate the hypermutation and recombination of immunoglobulin genes, which are crucial processes for the efficient recognition and disposal of pathogens. However, AID must be tightly controlled in B cells to minimize off-target mutations, which can drive chromosomal translocations and the development of B cell malignancies, such as lymphomas. Recent genomic and biochemical analyses have begun t ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase2 Aminotransferase2 Aminotransferase2 Metabolizes Endogenous Methylarginines , Regulates NO , and Controls Blood Pressure" by Ben Caplin et al. ...
The fate of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the cell depends on both its length and location . The expression of dsRNA in the nucleus leads to several distinct consequences. First, the promiscuous deamination of adenosines to inosines by dsRNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR) can lead to the nuclear retention of edited transcripts . Second, dsRNAs might induce heterochromatic gene silencing through an RNAi-related mechanism . Is RNA editing also connected to heterochromatin? We report that mem ...
Growth promotion and iron transport studies revealed that certain alpha-keto acids generated by amino acid deaminases, by enterobacteria of the Proteus-Providencia-Morganella group (of the tribe Proteeae), show significant siderophore activity. Their iron-binding properties were confirmed by the chrome azurol S assay and UV spectra. These compounds form ligand-to-metal charge transfer bands in the range of 400 to 500 nm. Additional absorption bands of the enolized ligands at 500 to 700 nm are re ...
Nearly one half of all cases of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are due to the T790M mutation in EGFR exon 20. The T790M mutation is a C→T transition mutation at a CpG dinucleotide. DNA methylation of cytosine (5-methylcytosine (5-mC)) in CpG dinucleotides is a common DNA modification; CpG dinucleotides are considered to be mutational hotspots that cause genetic diseases and cancers through ...
It is generally believed that in cells undergoing Ig somatic hypermutation, more cell divisions result in more mutations. This is because DNA synthesis and replication is thought to play roles in the known mechanisms-cytidine deamination and subsequent conversion to thymidine, uracil-DNA glycosylase-mediated repair, mismatch repair, and DNA synthesis by error-prone polymerases. In this study, we manipulated the number of cell generations by varying the rate at which cultures of a mouse cell line ...
A step-by-step mechanistic pathway following the transformation of formamide to purine through a five-membered ring intermediate has been explored by density functional theory computations. The highlight of the mechanistic route detailed here is that the proposed pathway represents the simplest reaction pathway. All necessary reactants are generated from a single starting compound, formamide, through energetically viable reactions. Several important reaction steps are involved in this mechanisti ...
The known cross-links of bone collagen are derived from lysine and hydroxylysine. The first step in the enzymatic cross-linking process is a deamination by lysyl oxidase producing an aldehyde which then may condense with a lysyl or hydroxylysyl residue of a neighbouring collagen molecule. Some of the resulting divalent aldimine and oxo-imine cross-links may later on be incorporated in trivalent hydroxylysyl-pyridinoline and lysyl-pyridinoline cross-links. In bone collagen prepared from the cance ...
An octasaccharide with high affinity for antithrombin was isolated after partial deaminative cleavage of heparin with nitrous acid. After conversion of the 2,5-anhydro-D-mannose end group to anhydro[1-3H]mannitol, labeled pentasaccharide was released from the octasaccharide by periodate-alkali treatment. Incubation of the pentasaccharide with a recently discovered 3,O-sulfatase from human urine resulted in desulfation, suggesting the occurrence of a 3-sulfate group on the terminal glucosamine re ...
Oxidative deamination of β-phenylethylamine or benzylamine by type B monoamine oxidases (MAO) in preparations of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from rabbit skeletal muscles is accompanied by inhibition both of active Ca2+ transport into the vesicles and of the activity of Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent ATPase, which is preventable by deprenil, a specific inhibitor of type B MAO. Aldehydes formed during enzymatic deamination of substrates of type B MAO may perhaps participate in the regulation of Ca2+, M ...
3-Methylaspartate ammonia-lyase catalyzes the deamination of (2S)-aspartic acid 137 times more slowly than the deamination of (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartic acid but catalyzes the amination of fumaric acid 1.8 times faster than the amination of mesaconic acid [Botting, N.P., Akhtar, M., Cohen, M. A., & Gani, D. (1988) Biochemistry (preceding paper in this issue)]. In order to understand the mechanistic basis for these observations, the deamination reaction was examined kinetically with (2S)-aspartic a ...
Constitutional heterozygous inactivating mutations in the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene cause the autosomal dominant disease NF2, and biallelic inactivating somatic NF2 mutations are found in a high proportion of unilateral sporadic vestibular schwannoma (USVS) and sporadic meningioma. We surveyed the distributions of constitutional NF2 mutations in 823 NF2 families, 278 somatic NF2 mutations in USVS, and 208 somatic NF2 mutations in sporadic meningioma. Based on the available ...
The effects of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors on the growth of the human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 were examined. Inhibitors were chosen for these studies that were specifically directed at each of the subunits of ribonucleotide reductase. The concentrations of drugs required to inhibit the growth of HT-29 cells by 50% (IC50) for hydroxyurea, 2,3-dihydro-IH-pyrazole-[2,3a]imidazole (IMPY), and 4-methyl-5-amino-1-formylisoquinoline thiosemicarbazone (MAIQ) were 206, 996, and 3.2 µM, r ...
The APOBEC3 deoxycytidine deaminase family functions as host restriction factors that can block replication of Vif (virus infectivity factor) deficient HIV-1 virions to differing degrees by deaminating cytosines to uracils in single-stranded (-)HIV-1 DNA. Upon replication of the (-)DNA to (+)DNA, the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase incorporates adenines opposite the uracils, thereby inducing C/G→T/A mutations that can functionally inactivate HIV-1. Although both APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G are expressed ...
Amino acid catabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and ammonia formation were studied in isolated perfused rat heart under anoxia. The total net anaplerosis due to amino acid degradation in anoxia was equal to that in oxygenation (6.29 and 6.09 mumol/g dry weight per h, respectively) as a result of the increased transamination of glutamic and aspartic acids. During anoxic perfusion, the rate of catabolism of glutamic and aspartic acids was 1.5-times higher than in normoxia, while ...
DNA melting is rate-limiting for cytosine deamination, from which we infer that the rate of cytosine deamination should decline twofold for each 10% increase in GC content. Analysis of human DNA sequence data confirms that this is the case for 5-methylcytosine. Several lines of evidence further confirm that it is also the case for unmethylated cytosine and that cytosine deamination causes the majority of all C-->T and G-->A transitions in mammals. Thus, cytosine deamination and DNA base co ...
Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines to their corresponding aldehydes, with the concomitant reduction of O(2) to H(2)O(2). Catalysis requires two cofactors: a mononuclear copper center and the cofactor 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ). TPQ is synthesized through the post-translational modification of an endogenous tyrosine residue and requires only oxygen and copper to proceed. TPQ biogenesis in CAO can be supported by alternate metals, a ...
Even under the best of circumstances, DNA is constantly subjected to chemical modifications. Several types of DNA damage such as SSB (single strand break), DSB (double strand break), CPDs (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers), 6-4PPs (6-4 photoproducts) and their Dewar valence isomers have been identified that result from alkylating agents, hydrolytic deamination, free radicals and reactive oxygen species formed by various photochemical processes including UV radiation. There are a number of strategie ...
Styrene 7,8-oxide (SO), a major metabolite of styrene, is classified as a probable human carcinogen. In the present work, salmon testis DNA was reacted with SO and the alkylation products were analysed after sequential depurination in neutral or acidic conditions followed by HPLC separation and UV-detection. A novel finding was that the N-3 position of adenine was the next most reactive alkylation site in double-stranded DNA, comprising 4% of the total alkylation, as compared to alkylation at th ...
A simple and convenient method was developed for the preparation of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 polysaccharide (Pn14PS)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccines, using terminally linked Pn14PS fragments of different lengths. Native Pn14PS was simultaneously depolymerized and activated for conjugation by partial N-deacetylation followed by nitrous acid deamination which yielded fragments (1.4 to 150.0 kDa) having a free aldehyde at the reducing end. These were then conjugated to TT through the ...
APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like) is a family of enzymes that deaminates cytosine (C) to uracil (U) on nucleic acid. APOBEC3B (A3B) functions in innate immunity against intrinsic and invading retroelements and viruses. A3B can also induce genomic DNA mutations to cause cancer. A3B contains two cytosine deaminase domains (CD1, CD2), and there are conflicting reports about whether both domains are active. Here we demonstrate that only CD2 of A3B (A3BCD2) has ...
The methylation of cytosines within cytosine-guanine (CG) dinucleotides is an epigenetic mark that can modify gene transcription. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing, it is possible to map methylomes, i.e. detect methylated CGs on a genome-wide scale. The methylomes sequenced to date reveal a divergence in prevalence and targeting of CG methylation between taxa, despite the conservation of the DNA methyltransferase enzymes that cause DNA methylation. Therefore, interspecific methylatio ...
1. The conversion of cytosine arabinoside into its active metabolite cytosine arabinoside triphosphate, and catabolism by deamination to uracil arabinoside, was measured in intact marrow myeloblasts from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. The ratio of uracil arabinoside/cytosine arabinoside triphosphate ranged from 0.32 to 19.11. 2. The effect of tetrahydrouridine, and inhibitor of cytosine arabinoside deamination, on cytosine arabinoside triphosphate production was studied. The greatest inc ...
The antitumor activity of a novel 4'-thionucleoside, 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-4-thio-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine (4'-thio-FAC), was evaluated. 4'-Thio-FAC inhibited the in vitro growth of various human cancer cell lines, particularly the growth of cell lines established from gastric and colorectal carcinomas, while its oxy-type congener 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine (FAC) showed little or no activity against such solid cancer cell lines. 4'-Thio-FAC showed a remarkable ant ...
2',2'-Difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (dFdC, gemcitabine) is a cytidine analogue active against several solid tumor types, such as ovarian, pancreatic and non-small cell lung cancer. The compound has a complex mechanism of action. Because of the structural similarity of one metabolite of dFdC, dFdUMP, with the natural substrate for thymidylate synthase (TS) dUMP, we investigated whether dFdC and its deamination product 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (dFdU) would inhibit TS. This study was performed us ...
Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA1 (ADAR1) catalyzes the C6 deamination of adenosine (A) to produce inosine (I) in regions of RNA with double-stranded (ds) character. This process is known as A-to-I RNA editing. Alternative promoters drive the expression of the Adar1 gene and alternative splicing gives rise to transcripts that encode 2 ADAR1 protein size isoforms. ADAR1 p150 is an interferon (IFN)-inducible dsRNA adenosine deaminase found in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas ADAR1 p110 is const ...
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and exogenous amines and its inhibitors have therapeutic value for several conditions including affective disorders, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. The discovery of 2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (TMN) as a nonselective and reversible inhibitor of MAO, has suggested 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) as a potential scaffold for designing new MAO inhibitors. Combining molecular modeling tools and biochemical assay ...