5 methyldeoxycytidine (Total 120132 Papers Found)

The major observation of this investigation is that a single intraperitoneal injection of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 60 mg/kg body mass) results within a few hours in a strong increase in nuclear DNA(cytosine-5)-methyl transferase (methyl transferase) activity in the liver, kidneys, heart, spleen, brain and lungs of male rats. In most organs, the rise in methyl transferase activity is observed as early as 4 h after BHT injection, it reaches a maximum at 8 h and then, except for lungs and bra ...
We describe time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5MedCyd). The assay is based on the use of a highly specific antiserum raised in rabbits against BSA-conjugated 5-methylcytidine (5MeCyd). The tracer in the solid-phase time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) was antigen-selected anti-5MedCyd labeled with Europium. Thyroglobulin-linked 5MeCyd served as the solid-phase antigen. The measuring range for the fluoroimmunoassay was from less than 1 to 5000 pmol per assay of 5Me ...
We analyzed DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) protein expression and DNA methylation patterns during four progressive stages of prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, well-differentiated tumors, early poorly differentiated tumors, and late poorly differentiated tumors. Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b protein expression were increased in all stages; however, after normalization to cyclin A to account for cell cycle reg ...
The pH effect on the one-electron photooxidation of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (d(m)C) by sensitization with 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) was investigated. Photoirradiation of an aqueous solution containing d(m)C and NQ under slightly acidic conditions of pH 5.0 efficiently produced 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidine, whereas similar NQ-photosensitized oxidation of d(m)C proceeded to a lesser extent under more acidic or basic conditions. Fluorescence-quenching experiments revealed that the less-effici ...
To examine the distribution of 5-methylcytosine in chromatin DNA, DNA of HeLa cells was labeled with [3H-methyl]methionine and [14C] thymidine and analyzed after extensive digestion of the nuclei with micrococcal nuclease. When the chromatin solubilized with the nuclease was fractionated on a sucrose density gradient, DNA in mononucleosomes was considerably depleted in 5-methylcytosine, as compared with polynucleosomes. Electrophoretic separation of DNA from the chromatin also revealed the deple ...
The E. coli polynucleotide phosphorylase-catalysed reaction of the deoxynucleoside 5'-diphosphates of 5-methyldeoxycytidine, N4-hydroxydeoxycytidine, deoxyuridine and 5-mercurideoxyuridine with the primers d(pT-T-A-G) and d(pT-T-T-T-T-T) have been studied under conditions where the primer is extended, predominantly, by one or two nucleotide residues. In experiments with 5-mercurideoxyuridine 5'-diphosphate, no 5-mercurideoxy-uridine-containing oligonucleotides were produced. The other three nucl ...
Promoter hypermethylation-associated tumor suppressor gene (TSG) silencing has been explored as a therapeutic target for hypomethylating agents. Promoter methylation change may serve as a pharmacodynamic endpoint for evaluation of the efficacy of these agents and predict the patient's clinical response. Here a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been developed for quantitative regional DNA methylation analysis using the molar ratio of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5m ...
BACKGROUND Homocysteine (Hcy) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) are 2 major metabolites of methionine. However, little is known about their interactions in human diseases. METHODS We determined the interaction of Hcy with SAH on DNA damage (measured as comet formation) and DNA hypomethylation (assayed as 5-methyldeoxycytidine, 5-mdc) in BV-2 cells (immortalized murine microglia). RESULTS Hcy at 100 micromol/l and SAH at 4 micromol/l alone caused little DNA strand breaks, whereas 100 micromol/ ...
5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Me-dC) is formed by the enzymatic methylation of dC, primarily in CpG sequences in DNA, and is involved in the regulation of gene expression. In the present study, 5-Me-dC and double-stranded DNA fragments containing 5-Me-dC were either gamma-irradiated or aerobically treated with Fenton-type reagents, Fe(II)-EDTA, Fe(II)-nitrilotriacetic acid, Fe(III)-EDTA-H(2)O(2)-catechol or ascorbic acid-H(2)O(2) under neutral conditions. The formation of 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidin ...
An oxidation-based synthetic approach was developed for facile preparation of 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine phosphoramidites. Upon introducing organic solvent components and copper catalysts, C5-methyl groups of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine and thymidine were readily oxidized to formyl and hydroxyl functionality, respectively. Standard solid phase DNA synthesis and conventional deprotection methods were applicable to synthesize 5-formyl- or 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine ...
Trees necessarily experience changes in temperature, requiring efficient short-term strategies that become crucial in environmental change adaptability. DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications have been shown to play a key role in both epigenetic control and plant functional status under stress by controlling the functional state of chromatin and gene expression. Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is a key stone of the Mediterranean region, growing at temperatures of 45°C. This spe ...
During embryonic development in mammals, most of the methylated cytosines in the paternal genome are converted to 5-hydroxymethyldeoxycytidine (hmC), as part of DNA methylation reprogramming. Recent data also suggest tissue-specific functional roles of hmC, perhaps as an epigenetic mark. However, limited data are available on the levels and tissue distribution in zebrafish. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to quantify hmC and 5-methyldeoxycytidine ( ...
Epigenetic modifications are key mediators of the interactions between the environment and an organism's genome. DNA methylation represents the best-studied epigenetic modification to date and is known to play key roles in regulating transcriptional activity and promoting chromosome stability. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the utility of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) as a sentinel species to investigate the persistent effects of environmental contaminant exposu ...
Eukaryotic DNA is methylated at some cytosine residues, and this epigenetic feature performs critical functions. We developed a method for quantitative determination of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine in human DNA using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS). The DNA was enzymatically hydrolyzed by sequential digestion with three enzymes. DNA hydrolyzates were subsequently separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in isocratic mode. The fou ...
Triple helices containing C+xGxC triplets are destabilised at physiological pH due to the requirement for base protonation of 2'-deoxycytidine (dC), which has a pKa of 4.3. The C nucleoside 2-amino-5-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)pyridine (beta-AP) is structurally analogous to dC but is considerably more basic, with a pKa of 5.93. We have synthesised 5'-psoralen linked oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) containing thymidine (dT) and either beta-AP or its alpha-anomer (alpha-AP) and have assessed ...
Interactions between nuclease-resistant, 5'-psoralen-conjugated, chimeric methylphosphonate oligodeoxyribo- or oligo-2'-O-methylribo-triplex-forming oligomers (TFOs) and a purine tract found in the envelope gene of HIV proviral DNA (env-DNA) were investigated by gel mobility shift assays or by photo-cross-linking experiments. These chimeric TFOs contain mixtures of methylphosphonate and phosphodiester internucleotide bonds. A pyrimidine chimeric TFO composed of thymidine and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycyt ...
In Escherichia coli, cytosine DNA methylation is catalyzed by the DNA cytosine methyltransferase (Dcm) protein and occurs at the second cytosine in the sequence 5'CCWGG3'. Although the presence of cytosine DNA methylation was reported over 35 years ago, the biological role of 5-methylcytosine in E. coli remains unclear. To gain insight into the role of cytosine DNA methylation in E. coli, we (1) screened the 72 strains of the ECOR collection and 90 recently isolated environmental samples for ...
A progressive decrease was observed in the 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of hepatic DNA in male F344 rats fed with a hepatocarcinogenic methyl-deficient diet. The same dietary regimen resulted in altered hepatic contents of S-adenosylmethionine, the methyl-donating species, and S-adenosylhomocysteine, an inhibitor of DNA methylase. The data indicate that this carcinogenic dietary manipulation is sufficient to alter a possible regulatory process, DNA methylation. ...
Triple helix formation with pyrimidine deoxyoligonucleotides for the sequence-specific recognition of DNA duplex targets suffers from a decrease in affinity as the pH of the medium increases to that of physiological fluids. A solution to this problem has been identified and entails the substitution of N6-methyl-8-oxo-2'-deoxyadenosine (M) for the 5-methyl-deoxycytosine base residues. The triple helix forming ability of an oligonucleotide consisting of thymidine and M residues is pH independent i ...
  • Joachim Jost,
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1993
Here I show that nuclear extracts of chicken embryos can promote the active demethylation of DNA. The evidence shows that in hemimethylated DNA (i.e., methylated on one strand only) demethylation of 5mCpG occurs through nucleotide excision repair. The first step of demethylation is the formation of specific nicks 5' from 5-methyldeoxycytidine. Nicks are also observed in vitro on symmetrically methylated CpGs (i.e., methylated on both strands) but they result in breakage of the oligonucleotide wi ...
Exposure of cells and organisms to stressors might result in epigenetic changes. Here it is shown that investigation of DNA methylation using pyrosequencing is an alternative for in vitro and in vivo toxicological testing of epigenetic effects induced by chemicals and drugs. An in vitro evaluation of global and CpG site specific DNA methylation upon treatment of cells with chemicals/drugs is shown. Bisulfite genomic sequencing of methylation controls showed high methylation of LINE1 in methylati ...
The present experiments were conducted to test the effects of the potent cytidine deaminase inhibitor tetrahydrouridine (THU) on the metabolism and cytotoxicity of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Med-Cyd) in several human leukemia cell lines in vitro. It was observed that 5-Med-Cyd exerts its effects via deamination to thymidine, which is particularly toxic to human promyelocytic (HL-60) and T-cell (JM) leukemia cell lines in vitro. The deamination and the cytotoxicity of 5-Med-Cyd were effectively ...
5-Methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (m5dC) levels were measured in DNA from three types of cultured cells following treatment with u.v. radiation and two chemical carcinogens, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NA-AAF). Control values for m5dC in Raji cells (a human lymphoblastoid cell line), S49 cells (a mouse thymic lymphoma cell line) and human diploid fibroblasts are 3.6%, 3.6% and 3.2%, respectively. None of the damaging agents produced a detectable change in methylatio ...
BACKGROUND Replication-independent active/enzymatic demethylation may be an important process in the functioning of somatic cells. The most plausible mechanisms of active 5-methylcytosine demethylation, leading to activation of previously silenced genes, involve ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins that participate in oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine which can be further oxidized to 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine. Recently, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine was demonstr ...
Epigenetic alterations are increasingly implicated in the initiation and progression of cancer. Genome-wide (global) hypomethylation seems to occur in early neoplasia and is a feature of genomic DNA derived from solid tumour tissues like ovarian cancer. Thus, analytical methods that provide sensitive and quantitative information about cytosine methylation in DNA are currently required. In this work, we compare two different anion-exchange columns for the separation of methylated cytosine from th ...
Specific cleavage of large DNA molecules at few sites, necessary for the analysis of genomic DNA or for targeting individual genes in complex genomes, requires endonucleases of extremely high specificity. Restriction endonucleases (REase) that recognize DNA sequences of 4-8 bp are not sufficiently specific for this purpose. In principle, the specificity of REases can be extended by fusion to sequence recognition modules, e.g. specific DNA-binding domains or triple-helix forming oligonucleotides ...
Nineteen plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic Chlorella-like green alga, strain NC64A, were isolated from various geographic regions in the United States and characterized. Like the previously described virus, PBCV-1, all of the new viruses were large polyhedrons, sensitive to chloroform, and contained large dsDNA genomes of ca. 300 kbp. All of the viral DNAs contained 5-methyldeoxycytidine which varied from 0.1 to 47% of the deoxycytidine. In addition, 10 of the viral DNAs cont ...
We introduced eight bases, including four base analogs, into 15-mer triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) [d-psTTTCTTTNTTTTCTT; ps = thiophosphate; N = A, G, C, T, 2'-deoxyinosine (I), 2'-deoxyxanthosine (X), 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (m5C), or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine(br5U)] to investigate the Hoogsteen-like hydrogen bonding to the base in the target 34-mer strand (d-TGAGTGAGTAAAGAAARAAAAGAATGAGTGCCAA.d-TTGGCACTCATTCTTTTYTTTCT TTACTCACTCA; RY = AT, GC, TA, or CG). We examined the thermal stabi ...
The goal of the present study was to investigate inter-individual and age-dependent variation of global DNA methylation in human tissues. In this work, we examined 5-methyldeoxycytidine ((met)C) content by HPLC in human peripheral blood leukocytes obtained from 76 healthy individuals of ages varying from 4 to 94 years (yr), and 39 human placentas from various gestational stages. The HPLC analysis revealed a significant variation of (met)C across individuals and is consistent with the previous fi ...
Folate deficiency is implicated in human colon cancer. The effects of feeding rats a folate-deficient diet for 24 weeks on DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine), DNA repair [O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG-1) activity], and epigenetic parameters (genome-wide cytosine methylation and indices of cellular methylation status) were investigated. Relative to control diet, the folate-deficient diet resulted in significantly reduced levels of serum ( ...
The heat-induced conversion of 5-methylcytosine (m5C) residues to thymine residues and of cytosine to uracil residues in single-stranded DNA was studied. The calculated rates for deamination at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 were approximately 9.5 X 10(-10) and 2.1 X 10(-10) sec-1, respectively. N4-Methyldeoxycytidine, which is in the DNA of certain thermophilic bacteria, was more heat-resistant than was deoxycytidine and much more than was 5-methyldeoxycytidine. Thermophilic bacteria which contain N4- ...
A simple reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (m5dCyd), recently claimed (on the basis of an imuno-technique) to be a potential marker for leukaemia, has been developed. Sample pre-treatment is based on a microcolumn clean-up step with an average recovery of 79% and a RSD of 3%. Detection limit was 0.2 microg/ml which is about tenfold lower than levels previously measured by an ELISA method in urine of healthy individuals. T ...
The stabilities of oligodeoxyribonucleotide triplexes containing a single pyrimidine-purine base pair, which interrupts an otherwise purine-pyrimidine base pair motif, were studied by UV melting experiments. The oligomer systems consisted of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide target duplex d-GAAGAAAAAAYAAAA/d-TTTTZTTTTTTCTTC, I.II(Y.Z), or d-GAAGAAAAAGUGAAA/d-TTTCACTTTTTCTTC, IV.V(U.A), where Y.Z is C.G, T.A, or U.A and U is deoxyuridine. The third strand oligodeoxyribopyrimidine was d-CTTCTTTTTTXTTTT, ...
KMnO4 consumption in solution by nucleoside added at an excess was measured to explore any possible oxidative interactions between these molecules. Thymidine, 5-methyldeoxycytidine and deoxycytidine rapidly decomposed KMnO4 with the pseudo-first-order kinetics (thymidine greater than 5-methyl-deoxycytidine greater than deoxycytidine), while deoxyguanosine showed only a very slow consumption and deoxyadenosine did not decompose KMnO4 at all under the conditions employed (0.16 mM KMnO4, 0.80 mM nu ...
We examined the DNA methylation pathway in an autochthonous murine prostate cancer model, transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP). We observed that, compared with strain-matched normal prostates, primary and metastatic TRAMP tumors display increased cytosine DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) activity, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b protein expression, and Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b mRNA expression. Increased expression of Dnmt genes correlates with increased expression of cyclin A and E2F target genes, ...
5-Methylcytosine ( 5MeCyt ) is a possible regulator of eukaryotic gene transcription. We investigated whether this compound could be introduced into DNA from exogenous deoxyribonucleoside 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine ( 5MedCyd ). High concentrations of 5MedCyd inhibited the growth of several types of human leukemic cell lines in vitro. However, the effect could be accounted for by dThd, a deamination product of 5MedCyd . We found that radioactivity from [methyl-14C] 5MedCyd and [2-14C] 5MedCyd was ...
DNA methylation is known to change with age in several mammalian species. Here we have examined the effect of dietary energy restriction on this age-associated change in liver DNA of C3H/SHN mice. The total 5-methyldeoxycytidine level in the genome decreased slightly soon after energy restriction started. The effect, however, diminished with time and no appreciable difference was detected at middle and old ages. The degree of methylation at the c-myc gene, on the other hand, was not affected by ...
Effects of ionizing radiation on the level of genomic DNA methylation in liver, brain and spleen of mouse as well as in two kinds of cultured cells were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Ten Gy of whole body X-radiation reduced the 5-methyldeoxycytidine contents by about 40% within 8 hours after irradiation in liver. Similar effects were observed at 4 or 7 Gy of X-ray irradiation. However, no such change was detected in brain, spleen and cultured cells. The data indicate that r ...
Modification of DNA-cytosine by a 5-methyl group is thought to be an important mechanism which regulates the expression of eukaryotic genes. This modification takes place after semiconservative replication. There is very little evidence, if any, that 5MeCyt could be naturally incorporated into mammalian DNA in semiconservative replication. We have clarified the possibility of incorporating 5MedCyd pharmacologically into human leukemic cells in vitro. To this end, we developed a novel small-scale ...
8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-mdC) are utilized as useful biomarkers not only for early diagnosis but also for the detection and assessment of high-risk individuals. In the present study, a sensitive and specific method was developed for simultaneous determination of 8-OHdG and 5-mdC in DNA by high performance liquid chromatography/positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of quantification for 8-OHdG and 5-mdC were 80 and 40pg/ ...
It has been recently shown that in developing chicken embryonic nuclear extracts there is a 5-methyldeoxycytidine excision repair activity (Jost, J. P. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 90, 4684-4688). We show that in differentiating mouse myoblasts, a similar enzymatic reaction may be responsible for the genome-wide DNA demethylation (up to 50% of all CmCGG) occurring between the 3rd and 5th days of differentiation. Furthermore, in differentiating myoblasts, there is first a 50% transient ...
Fragmentation has proven to be a major factor limiting accessible mass range, sensitivity, and mass resolution in the analysis of DNA by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Previous work has shown that this DNA fragmentation is strongly dependent on both the MALDI matrix and the nucleic acid sequence employed. Fragmentation is initiated by nucleobase protonation, leading to cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond with base loss, followed by cleavage of the phospho ...
The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of wild yam root extract (WYRE) as a potential demethylating agent using two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive; ER+) and MDA-MB-231 (Estrogen receptor negative; ER−), and a methylated gene, GATA3, as a potential marker of breast cancer development. The cells were treated with WYRE (0–50 μg/mL) for 72 h and used for viability, mRNA, and methylation analyses. WYRE significantly reduced viability of both cell l ...
During carcinogenesis, methylation of the C-5 position of cytosines in the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes is often observed. Enzymatic DNA methylation is a widely accepted mechanism for this phenomenon. It is interesting to propose a free radical mechanism for 5-methyldeoxycytidine (m(5)dC) production, because the C-5 position of cytosine is an active site for free radical reactions. When deoxycytidine (dC) and cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH), a tumor promoter and a methyl radical produc ...
  • Walter Doerfler,
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1990
This paper presents a review of previously published results from my laboratory on the inactivating or inhibiting function of sequence-specific methylation on promoter activity. In this study, viral promoters, mostly those from adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) or type 12 (Ad12), have been used. It has also been shown that the transcriptional block of these methylated viral promoters can, at least partly, be reversed by a transactivating protein or by the presence of a strong enhancer. We have also adduce ...